23 de mayo de 2024

17 de noviembre de 2023

Starting on mosses

[Most recent entry Jan 16, 2022]
In early October 2023 I began at last to pay some attention to mosses. Since then, I've posted about 100 observations with a moss taxo, plus one scalewort and one spleenwort. Progress in ID has been slow when measured by the number of RG observations added per week of daily activity on i Nat. About fourteen weeks on, I have RG observations on thirteen species. All observations are from the Anchorage Farm Saugerties.
I do know much more than at the start, thanks to the more than thirty community members who have helped me, several more than once and in painstaking detail.

Community members have suggested references both in covers and on-line in addition to the one I'd been working with, McKnight and Rohrer's Common Mosses of the Northeast and Appalachians Kindle edition. These include
2) J. Jenkins and S. Williams Mosses of the Northern Forest: A Digital Atlas
3) Michael Leuth https://northernforestatlas.org/category/digital-atlases-2/mosses-digital-atlases-2/
http://www.bildatlas-moose.de/ spectacular color photos and color drawings/paintings macro and micro. Warning: by no means are all of the few mosses I’ve got familiar with in southeastern NYS to be found in this beautiful Europe-grounded atlas
4) https://www.mosses-of-europe.com/ by Michael Leuth The three volumes are not readable on line, but judging by the earlier work, Mosses of Germany, this is extraordinary science and artistry.
5) https://digitalcommons.mtu.edu/bryophyte-ecology1/ Janice Glyme Bryophyte Ecology 5 volumes. I’ve hardly explored it, but the methods section looks terrific.
6) Ireland, R. R. (1982). Moss Flora of the Maritime Provinces. National Museum of Natural Sciences Publications in Botany, No. 13. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/178709#page/1/mode/1up line drawings in wonderful detail.
7) Bowman, K. 2017. Field Guide to the Moss Genera in New Jersey With Coefficient of Conservation and Indicator Status. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, New Jersey Forest Service, Office of Natural Lands Management, Trenton, NJ, 08625. Submitted to United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 2, State Wetlands Protection Development Grant, Section 104(B)(3); CFDA No. 66.461, CD97225809. https://herbarium.rutgers.edu/documents/Field-Guide-to-the-Moss-Genera-in-New-Jersey.pdf. This has a promising-looking key based on same three characteristics as the key in McKnight and Rohrer. Now that I'm learning to tease out individual leaves I can begin to use keys.
8) https://www.britishbryologicalsociety.org.uk/learning

Around mid-November I started photographing stems and branches at 50 power and leaves at higher power, up to 450x for a look at cell structure. This helps with IDs, but there are a lot of rabbit holes for a nerd like me to follow. A prime example is assigning species within the Genus Atrichum. I have nineteen observations of this Genus, believe there are three species among them. So far only one has RG, which has to be a little shaky as there are no close-ups of the leaves. Unless I can find someone who specializes in the Genus as it's found in eastern North America I won't get much further.
My overall objective at first was to have at least one RG observation on dozen mosses found on the farm that Jenkins and Williams call must know (MK). Have eight so far. Below is a list of MK target species and genera. It also includes several non-MK taxa that have RG and some taxa either MK or not that I've posted once with insufficient data to elicit comments, but hope to get back to.
For the first fourteen on the list I have one or two RG observations each. The next group, some of which have multiple observations, are not RG. A couple might make if I flog them to the community. Most, however, even those with some sort of micro-photography, are just not research grade material. I need better observations on them. The last two are MKs I haven't come across yet.
I hope to add some more names to the RG group, but it will be slow going. Ulota crispa is the next one in my sights. I'm pretty sure I have that but have not been able as of Dec 13 AM to get get positive feedback. Several observations have been posted as this so far, but none has made the cut. Laeskea is another that's been remarked on more than once as likely having made a cameo appearance.
Thuidium delicatulum MK
Entodon seductrix MK
Hedwigia ciliata MK
Hedwigia integrifolia
Calliergonella lindbergii (AKA Hypnum lindbergii)
Pseudanomodon attenuatus (AKA Anomodon attenuatus)
Atrichum angustatum MK
Platygyrium repens MK
Callicladium imponens (AKA Hypnum imponens) MK
Plagyomnium cuspidatum MK
Climacium dendroides MK
Bryoandersonia illecebra
Callicladium haldanianum MK
Oxyrrhynchium hians

Atrichum undulatum (Catherine's moss) MK
Bryhinia novae-angliae
Orthotrichum stellatum
Ulota crispa MK
Amblystegium serpens
Kindbergia praelonga
Barbula unguiculata

Entodon cladorrhizans MK
Plagyomnium ciliare MK

Publicado el 17 de noviembre de 2023 a las 12:26 AM por stephenshafer stephenshafer | 8 observaciones | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

23 de septiembre de 2023

The downed oak habitat

In February 2022 an ice storm uprooted a huge oak west of the barns. It fell into a stand of younger trees growing in what eighty years before had been a cattle pasture. The photo below shows it in September 2023. The second photo of bark, moss, polypore and geranium is a microcosm of the whole little system. The third photo shows off the fungus most prevalent and most conspicuous in this little system as of September 2023. This is Sterum complicatum, along with a companion also heavily represented, Trichaptum biforme. Trametes betulina may be third-easiest to spot; it seems to be everywhere.
That autumn, while cleaning up some of the debris, I saw many fungi on the trunk and branches that caught my beginner's eye. I made close to seventy observations on i Nat in October-November and added three in September 2023. I got wonderful help from members of the i Nat community, notably Sarah Duhon, Misha Zitser and John Plischke and from NY Myco Society virtual ID sessions.
Among the seventy observations on this tiny ecosystem, twenty species of fungus and one of lichen have at least one Research Grade observation. A few species have several. Another seven observations of fungi are posted at the Genus level. These include some crust fungi, which that I've noticed are very hard to identify below Genus level from macro photos alone. One lichen is posted at species level that is not confirmed.
The twenty-nine observations of fungi (mostly) or lichen that are at Genus level or lower are listed below. A fungus with more than one RG observation is listed only once.
This was a good learning lab for me as a novice identifier privileged to interact with others who know much more. It's also the start of a chance to follow future outgrowths.

Common name Scientific name RG? url

Wood Ear fungi Auricularia

False turkey tail Sept 2023 Stereum lobatum y www.inaturalist.org/observations/184769930
Hypoxylon canker Biscogniauxia atropunctata y www.inaturalist.org/observations/141485038
Poor man's licorice Bulgaria inquinans y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140437141
a pink crust fungus Corticium

Oysterlings Sept 2023 Crepidotus


Oak curtain crust Hymenochaete rubiginosa y www.inaturalist.org/observations/184767003
Brown-toothed crust fungus Hydnoporia olivacea y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140870688
Milkwhite toothed polypore Irpex lacteus y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140190489
a toothed crust fungus Mycoacacia


Luminescent panellus Panellus stypticus y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140108959
Rosy crust Peniophora incarnata y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140008246
Whitewash lichen Phlyctis argena


Fall oyster Sept 2023 Pleurotus ostreatus y www.inaturalist.org/observations/184399540
Porodisculus pendulus y www.inaturalist.org/observations/141097264
Rough speckled shield lichen Punctelia rudecta y www.inaturalist.org/observations/145702857
Asian beauty Radulomyces copelandii y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140007174
Splitgill mushroom Schizophyllum commune y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140109625
Ochre spread tooth Steccherinum ochraceum y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140577439
Crowded parchment Stereum Complicatum y www.inaturalist.org/observations/144107364
Gilled polypore Trametes betulina y www.inaturalist.org/observations/141531998
Hairy bracket Trametes hirsuta y www.inaturalist.org/observations/141487060
Ochre bracket Trametes ochracea y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140871611
Turkey tail Sept 2023 Trametes versicolor y www.inaturalist.org/observations/184400975
Violet-toothed polypore Trichaptum biforme y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140009505
Trichoderma viride

Split porecrust Xylodon paradoxus y www.inaturalist.org/observations/140914557

Publicado el 23 de septiembre de 2023 a las 06:41 PM por stephenshafer stephenshafer | 3 observaciones | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de septiembre de 2023

The streambank habitat

Below is a list of ninety-one kinds of plants I found along the 300 yards or so on both sides of the Sawyer Kill between the two bridges between Sept 5 and Sept 15. Three more have been added on October 1. The list is grouped by natives vs not, with Smoothcap moss (genus Atrichum) unclassified. Seventeen of the sixty natives had been planted by me from a nursery, most in 2023. Two species, denoted as t23, had been transplanted in 2023 from elsewhere on the farm. Forty-one of the natives, then, had been there without my interference/intervention.
As other plants are found I will add them, but note after the name of each when it was added.
The inventory here follows the same method as the other journal entry posted earlier about the ruderal habitat, but the habitat described here developed in a different way. When we moved to this farm thirty years ago the long-ungrazed cattle pasture on the left bank of the Sawyer Kill came almost to the lip of the steep bank. We decided to set electric fencing fifteen feet from the lip and not mow outside it, to let whatever volunteered grow into into a "streambank buffer" that would slow bank erosion, give cover to wildlife and keep sheep manure runoff out of the (un-pristine) stream.
Through my carelessness, the big trees (native and non-native) along the stream gradually found themselves standing in a dense tangle of invasive non-native plants. Chief contributors/offenders are Japanese barberry, Privet (species uncertain), Japanese honeysuckle, Multiflora rose, Winged euonymus, Oriental bittersweet and Autumn olive (which I confess to have transplanted a couple of decades ago). Sad to say, I did not realize the harm of this situation until hearing a webinar in spring 2023 about native plants and then reading Douglas Tallamy. Since then I've set about to take out non-natives and replace them with natives. In the process a number of native species already resident but often overwhelmed came to light. Some native ground covers and ramblers (Riparian grape, Virginia Creeper and Poison Ivy) were holding their own amidst Japanese honeysuckle, Bittersweet and Ground ivy.
The list is a snapshot of what we'll be working with and against to get natives on a stronger footing over the next few years.
I am most grateful to i Nat and the i Nat community of teachers and identifiers.
This journal page is dedicated to Don Wilkin, Ph.D., a mentor in ecology.

Common name Scientific name nat? planted?
Golden groundsel Packera aurea y 23
New Jersey Tea Ceanothus americanus y 23
Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis y

Trumpet vine Campsis radicans y t23
Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis y

Shellbark hickory Carya laciniosa y 23
American sycamore Platanus occidentalis y 21
American beech Fagus grandifolia y t23
Northern red oak Quercus rubra y

Nothern spicebush Lindera benzoin y

White ash Fraxinus americana y

Persicaria virginiana Persicaria virginiana y

Big bluestem Andropogon gerardi y 23
Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans y

Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia y

Witch hazel Hamamelis viginiana y 23
Blackhaw Viburnum prunifolium y 23
Tall hairy agrimony Agrimonia gryposepala y

Slippery elm Ulmus rubra y

Honey locust Gleditsia triacanthos y

Wild basil Clinopodium vulgare y

Chestnut oak Quercus montana y

Guelder rose Viburnum opulum y 23
Riparian grape Vitis riparia y

Eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana y

Sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis y

White wood aster Eurybia divaricata y

Ninebark Physocarpus opulifolius y 23
Deciduous holly Ilex decidua y 23
Blueberry Vaccinium y 23
Blackberry Rhubus y 23
Jewelweed Impatiens capensis y

Blue beech Carpinus caroliniana y

White snakeroot Ageratina altissima y

American hop hornbeam Ostrya virginiana y

Basswood Tilia americana y

River birch Betula nigra y 23
Hackberry Celtis occidentalis y

American bladdernut Staphylea trifolia y

Tall meadow rue Thalictrum y

Northern catalpa Catalpa speciosa y

Giant stinging nettles Urtica dioica y

Black walnut Juglans nigra y

Pokeweed Phytolacca americana y

Straw-colored flatsedge Cyperus strigosus y

White vervain Verbena urticifolia y

White pine Pinus strobus y t23
Broadleaf enchanter's nightshade Circaea canadensis y

Black chokeberry Aronia melanocarpa y 23
Upright wood sorrel 9/15 Oxalis stricta y

Gray's sedge Carex grayi y

Bottlebrush buckeye Aesculus parviflora y

Carolina rose Rosa carolina y

Snowberry Symphoricarpus albus y

Smooth witchgrass Panicum dichotomitflorium y

Virginia sticktight Hackelia virginiana y

Smoothcap moss 9/26/2023 Genus Atrichum ?

Common jewelweed 10/1 Impatiens capensis y

Canada clearweed 10/1 Pilea pumila y

Toringo crabapple 10/1 Malus toringo

Japanese stiltgrass 9/15 Microstegium vinimeum

Field chickweed 9/15 Cerastium arvense

Japanese Barberry Berberis thunbergii

Autumn olive Elaeagnus umbellata

Winged Euonymus Euonymous alatus

Oriental bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus

Privet Ligustrum spp

Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica

Moneywort Lysimachia nummularia

Multiflora rose Rosa multiflora

Weeping willow Salix babylonica 92
Horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum t23
Mock strawberry Potentilla indica

Norway maple Acer platanoides

Wrinkle-leaved g'rod Solidago rugosa

Ground ivy Glechoma hederacea

Buckthorn Rhamnus cathartica

Queen Anne's lace Daucus carota

St John's wort Genus Hypericum

Wild cherry Prunus avium

Wineberry Rhubus phoenicolasius

Black jetbead Rhodotypus scandens

Mullein Verbascum thapsis

Motherwort sept 11 Leonurus cardiaca

Creeping thistle Cirsium arvense

Yellow foxtail Setaria pumila

White mulberry Morus alba

Greater plantain (broadleaf) Plantago major

Calico aster Symphyotrichum laterifolium

Yellow sweet clover Melilotus oficinalis

Chicory Cichorium intybus

Siberian cranesbill not sure Geranium sibiricum

Low smartweed Persicaria longiseta

Publicado el 14 de septiembre de 2023 a las 09:34 PM por stephenshafer stephenshafer | 1 observación | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

01 de septiembre de 2023

A ruderal community beside the retaining wall

This lists, or begins to, the plant community of a ruderal habitat near our house that began about eight years ago. A backhoe tore up all the shallow weedy turf on a slope to the west of a 12-foot-high stone retaining wall to allow construction of concrete buttresses for the wall. From the wall to the Sawyer Kill is about 30 feet. The southern end is ¾ sun, the northern shaded. When the buttresses were finished, we spread imported loamy topsoil in a thin layer over most of the clayey slope and seeded the area (aprox 3000 square feet) with “No Mow” grass mix from Prairie Nursery. It took pretty well in the first two years, then began to be hidden under taller flora. We paid little attention to the succession since until this year, when I got belatedly interested in native plants.

A photo of the habitat from the south end is on https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/181348364

On August 29 I spent about half an hour noting the plants seen in this almost-all-volunteer community. All of them are in my I Nat album, though not all the observations are research grade. To my dismay, it seems that unless we intervene, the highly invasive mugwort soon will dominate at least the sunnier, southern, half of the arena. I was pleased to see, though, how many native plants are established without any help from us except for the kinds marked with an asterisk – one sapling each of two tree species, some transplanted Chasmanthium latifolium, and a couple of small clumps of two kinds of native fern.

Virginia creeper Parthenocissus quinquefolia
White woodland aster Eurybia divaricata
Wrinkle-leaved goldenrod Solidago rugosa
Hoary tick trefoil Desmodium canescens
Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis
*Inland wood oats Chasmanthium latifolium
*Sycamore Platanus occidentalis
Partridge pea Chamaecrista fasciculata
White vervain Verbena urticifolia
Slippery elm Ulmus rubra
*Shad blow Ameliancher arborea
Purpletop trident Tridens flavus
Cutleaf sunflower Rudbeckia laciniata
Broad-leaved enchanter’s nightshade Circaea canadensis
Philadelphia fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus
Canada clearweed Pilea pumila
Tall hairy agrimony Agrimonia gryposepala
White snakeroot Ageritina altissima
False nettle Boehmeria cylindrica
Purple coneflower Echinacea purpurea
Riparian grape Vitis riparia
Eastern red cedar Juniperus virginiana
Northern catalpa Catalpa speciosa
*Sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis
*Northern lady fern Athyrium angustum
Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans
Common milkweed Asclepias syriaca
Common Ragweed Ambrosia artemisifolia noticed Sept 2
Smooth bedstraw Complex Galium mollugo noticed Sept 2


Mugwort Artemisia vulgaris
Tree of life Ailanthus altissima
Japanese barberry Berberis thunbergii
Ground ivy Glechoma hederaceae
Devil’s beggartick Bidens frondosa
Black swallow-wort Vincetoxicum nigrum
Ribwort plantain Plantago lanceolata
Oriental bittersweet Celastrus orbiculatus
Creeping thistle Cirsium arvense
Queen Anne’s lace Daucus carota
Common hawthorn Crataegus monogyna
Fescues Genus Festuca
Multiflora rose Rosa multiflora
Privet Genus Ligustrum
Japanese creeper Parthenocissus tricuspidata
Stiltgrass Microstegium vimineum
Yellow Archangel Lamium galeobdolon
Myrtle Vinca minor
Yellow sweet clover Meliotis officinalis
Red clover Trifolium pratense
Broadleaf plantain Plantago major noticed Sept 2

Visible in the community at other times of year native
Blue-eyed grass Genus Sisyrinchium
Indian tobacco Lobelia inflata
Visible at other times of year not native
*Daffodils Genus Narcissus
Dame’s Rocket Hesperis matronalis

*asterisk marks a kind of native plant I transplanted or planted direct
underscore marks an invasive I ignorantly transplanted

I am indebted to the more than 400 i Nat community members who have guided me with identifications and suggestions since I joined in Dec 2021. Thank you all, and thanks to the organizers who built and run this extraordinary platform.

Publicado el 01 de septiembre de 2023 a las 09:38 PM por stephenshafer stephenshafer | 1 observación | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario