14 de mayo de 2024

Pseudoclanis - moths I get confused by (G)

Pseudoclanis of southern Africa

Photo credits: P. postica @craigpeter @ricky_taylor @qgrobler | P. diana @laurent_h @petererb @wolfachim | P. molitor @qgrobler


  • A lot of species were split from postica and described by one Ulf Eitschberger. All from a single locality in the Eastern Cape. And published in his very own journal which does not appear to be available on the net. These are allessandroi, asantei, joannoui (odd distribution on Afromoths - ZA and Gambia - hmmm...), kruegeri, pseudoasantei, staudei. Kitching has sunk them all back into postica, Afromoths has not. For my own personal opinion, they're all postica and I'm leaving it like that for now.
  • It is entirely possible that diana is merely an ecomorph of postica. It has been bounced in and out of postica over the millenia and will no doubt keep bouncing for a while. Only found in Namibia and Angola.
  • diana has a plain form like postica but I couldn't find a nice pic on iNat.
  • postica is widespread over sA from about George northwards and tropical Africa. There is even a record on iNat in Cape Town (https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/121098128) which is a big range extension as far as I know. Possibly because Celtis trees (caterpillar host-plant) are planted in gardens everywhere.
  • postica is a highly variable species! The photos here show only some of the variation.
  • molitor occurs in NE South Africa and into tropical Africa.

    Thank you to the photographers!

Publicado el 14 de mayo de 2024 a las 09:29 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

22 de abril de 2024

Silver pattern green geometrids - moths I get confused by (F)

Photo credits: Dichroma equestralis @jennyparsons_201pringle | Argyrophora moderata @kooscl | Drepanogynis bifasciata @karoopixie

Thank you to the photographers!

Publicado el 22 de abril de 2024 a las 10:00 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

11 de abril de 2024

Nephele - moths I get confused by (E)

The Nepheles (Sphingidae).

Photo credits: N. accentifera @rodswazi / @seanakruger / inset @bartwursten | N. peneus @wynand_uys / @qgrobler | N. vau @roelofvdb / @suncana | N. argentifera @meagan37 / @mexel | N. comma @scottfrichardson / @bartwursten / @bartwursten / @martinmandak | N. aequivalens @martinmandak | N. cf. rosae/oenopion @bartwursten | N. bipartita @bartwursten | N. funebris @ricky_taylor

The insets of the silver markings are all from the left forewing.


  • N. lannini apparently occurs in Moz. Looks pretty similar to N. funebris.
  • N. rosae and N. oenopion on Afromoths look so similar to me that I can't tell the difference. We have only one ob on iNat so far (ID'd as rosae), so I have no comparisons to work with.
  • All my images here need to be confirmed - please don't take this cheat sheet as gospel. If you have any suggestions for ID tips or corrections, please let me know!!
  • Nepheles usually have green and brown forms. Some, especially comma often don't have the silver marking on the wing, or just a silver dot.

Thank you to the photographers!

Publicado el 11 de abril de 2024 a las 02:33 PM por karoopixie karoopixie | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Aurivillius, Tagoropsis, Pselaphelia, Nudaurelia wahlbergii - moths I get confused by (D)

The yellow/brown emperors with stripes, scallops and the pinkish wavy wash along the trailing wing margin.

Photo credits: Tagoropsis flavinata @magdastlucia | Pselaphelia flavivitta @richard_johnstone | Aurivillius fuscus @dhfischer / @paolocandotti / @dhfischer | Nudaurelia wahlbergii @carasylvia / @evingrody / @lindaloffler

A lovely photo by @moira_fitzpatrick showing both colour forms of A. fuscus together:

From observation: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/112291791

Thank you very much to the photographers!

Publicado el 11 de abril de 2024 a las 10:24 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

05 de abril de 2024

Calliodes, Cometaster, Erebus, Cyligramma - moths I get confused by (C)

Owl moths of the Erebidae. I call these the cellophane comma moths. They all have the distinctive yin-yang marking.

Quick cheat sheet

Detailed cheat sheet

Photo credits: Cometaster pyrula: @wynand_uys @hrodulf @dhfischer | Spirama glaucescens: @moira_fitzpatrick | Calliodes pretiosissima: @dhfischer @karinmitton | Erebus walkeri: @rodswazi @martinmandak | Cyligramma fluctuosa: @bartwursten | Cyligramma magus: @henrydelange | Cyligramma latona: @annagood @muonmo

  • Apparently Cyligramma limacina does not occur in sA and obs on iNat are incorrectly ID'd and should be C. fluctuosa.
  • Cyligramma joa, a Madagascan species, may occur in sA. I have gone through all the Cyligramma obs on iNat and I don't see it there. C. joa on Afromoths - https://www.afromoths.net/species/43727
  • Erebus atavistis occurs in Zim. No obs that I can find on iNat yet. E. atavistis on Afromoths - https://www.afromoths.net/species_by_code/EREBATAV?tab=photos

    Cyligramma joa copyright A. Basquin on Afromoths

Erebus atavistis copyright TMSA on Afromoths

As always, Thank You very much to the photographers!

Publicado el 05 de abril de 2024 a las 12:04 PM por karoopixie karoopixie | 6 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de marzo de 2024

Chalciope, Parachalciope, Fodina, Parafodina, Trigonodes etc. - moths I get confused by (B)

Photo credits:
Top: Chalciope delta: @katebraunsd | Fodina cf embolophora: @magdastlucia | Parafodina pentagonalis: @dhfischer | Pseudomaenas leucograpta: @karoopixie |
Middle: Parachalciope mahura: @andrewdeacon | Trigonodes exportata: @woodowlwildlife | Pseudomaenas directa: @karoopixie |
Bottom: Chalciope pusilla @spidermandan | Cuneisigna cumamita: @bernadine2 | Cuneisigna obstans: @henrydelange | Cuneisigna rivulata: @remco

Most of these triangles are in the Erebidae except for the Pseudomaenas which are geometrids.

I have not been able to find any images of Fodina arctioides which has been described from KZN. When browsing the Fodina obs, it does seem to me that there are perhaps 2 species there, but I can't tell you if this is so, or which are which.

  • Fodina hypercompoides may also occur here, don't know what it looks like.
  • Parafodina ectrogia is listed as occuring in sA on Afromoths, but since the type and only other records are from West Africa, I doubt this.
  • Parachalciope euclidicola also occurs in sA, but I have no images of it (looks a bit like Chalciope delta according to Afromoths images).
  • Parachalciope benitensis may occur in sA - don't have any images.
  • Trigonodes exportata is the only Trig in sA. T. hypassia is from Burma. The most commonly incorrectly ID'd of these moths on iNat are Trigonodes and Parachalciope.
  • There are other Pseudomaenas species which superficially resemble Chalciope or Cuneisigna which I have not included because I personally don't get confused by them ;-)

Thank you very much to all the photographers!

Publicado el 26 de marzo de 2024 a las 11:18 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

04 de marzo de 2024

Anaphe & Parapluda - moths I get confused by (A)

A series that is for myself and anyone else who has to look these things up everytime they have to ID them ;-D

The Anaphes (Notodontidae: Thaemetopiinae) and Parapluda invitabilis (Limacodidae)

Photo credits: Anaphe reticulata @faruk_w | Anaphe panda @paolocandotti | Parapluda invitabilis male @moira_fitzpatrick | female @suncana

Thank you very much to the photographers!
Publicado el 04 de marzo de 2024 a las 01:41 PM por karoopixie karoopixie | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

16 de diciembre de 2019

The 'brown' southern African francolins - some ID help.

We have a lovely variety of francolins in southern Africa, and they can sometimes be tricky to ID.

The species are Greywing Francolin (Scleroptila afra), Redwing Francolin (S. levaillantii), Shelley's Francolin (S. shelleyi), Orange River Francolin (S. gutturalis), and to a lesser extent, Crested Francolin (Dendroperdix sephaena) and Coqui Francolin female (Peliperdix coqui).

I have tried to use neck patterns here because this is the bit that, fleetingly, sticks out from the grass as the little chaps hurry away out of sight.

All images from iNaturalist, and copyright remains with the photographers.
Redwing: @ammartin
Greywing: @michael_mcsweeney
Orange R: @nikborrow and @tapaculo99
Shelley's: @markuslilje
Crested: @michael_mcsweeney
Coqui: @richardgill


1a. Neck pattern black speckles bordered by ochre on nape and throat...Redwing
1b. Neck pattern speckly rufous or chestnut with no black necklaces...Crested
1c. Neck pattern ochre, rufous or whitish bordered by black speckles or necklaces on both nape and throat...2

2a. Bill all black, neck pattern ochre or rufous bordered by black speckles on both sides...Greywing
2b. Bill yellow at base, necklaces more definite black...3

3a. Small bird with very short bill that is mostly yellow. Nape necklace does not extend to throat...Coqui female
3b. Medium sized birds with nape necklace extending to throat, bill large and hooked...4

4a. Centre of belly barred black on white, distribution eastern...Shelley's
4b. Centre of belly faintly barred or spotted brownish on white, or flecked rufous on buff, never black barred, distribution western...Orange River

Current distribution records on iNat for Shelley's (blue) and Orange River (orange)

Hope this helps :-)
If you have any suggestions for improving this, please let me know!

Publicado el 16 de diciembre de 2019 a las 09:30 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

29 de enero de 2019

Adding photos and sounds to journal posts

Okay, so let's put some pics and sounds in your posts! The images and sound files have to be on the internet somewhere, they cannot be on your computer!!!



The basic code is <img src="https://www.website.com/imagename.jpg">

img = image
src = source

Now if you have images on iNat that you'd like to use, you need the path to the particular photo (not to the observation).

STEP ONE - locating an image on iNat
RIGHT-CLICK on the image you want to use in your journal post, LEFT-CLICK on Copy image location. Then on your journal post, add the text <img src=" and then PASTE the location you copied from your image - in this case https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/15496211/large.jpg, then type "> so it looks like this <img src="https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/15496211/large.jpg">

That's one image and it will be the width of the journal post box, like so:

STEP TWO - locating an image not on iNat
To link to an image that's on the internet but not on iNat, you use the same method above. The image must be yours or you must have permission to use it and credit the photographer/illustrator (this is true for iNat pics as well, of course!!). The image has to be on the internet, not on your hard disk/computer!

STEP THREE - images in rows
Now, if you want to add, say, 3 pics in a row, you need to add a bit of extra code to stipulate the width of each pic. We'll use percent rather than specific width so that it looks good on different screen sizes (hopefully). So, the extra code is style="width:33%" which will give you 3 pics in a row. If you want 2 pics then you'd use 50% etc.

So our code for 3 pics in a row looks like this <img src="https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/15496211/large.jpg" style="width:33%"> (repeated 3 times) and it looks like this (using the same pic):

Of course you'd want to use 3 different pics, so you copy the image location for each one as in Step 1, for example:
<img src="https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/15496211/large.jpg" style="width:33%"><img src="https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/29440856/large.jpeg" style="width:33%"><img src="https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/56653928/large.jpeg" style="width:33%">
and you will end up with something like this:

STEP FOUR - adding spaces between pics in rows
Now, the pics are all 'stuck together', which is not a bad thing, but you might want to have some 'breathing space' between them, so you need to add a bit of code to the style attribute - padding:10px; - so your code for each image now looks like this - <img src=""https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.amazonaws.com/photos/15496211/large.jpg" style="width:33%; padding:10px;"> and the pics look like this:

Argyrophora stramineata photo credit @karoopixie | Argyrophora arcualis photo credit @karoopixie | Argyrophora trofonia photo credit @karoopixie

You can change the width of the space between the pics as you choose. I have used 10 pixels here, but you can use less (~ 5px) or more (~ 20px). Play with it and see what works for you on the particular post you're creating.

Add captions and credits
To get this to look awesome requires a lot of styling attributes, so I'm going to suggest a simple method only.
Beneath the photos type in the captions and credits (use @ mentions for images on iNat). Use a pipe (|) or other character between image credits. And I suggest you put a line beneath to separate it from the rest of the text. To add a horizontal line just type <hr>.

STEP FIVE - Advanced resizing
(Only go here if you're feeling brave.)
In the above example the pics are all different sizes and you may want them the same height without squishing them widthways. For this you have to stipulate max-height and max-width. The max-width can remain a percentage, but the max-height has to be an actual pixel height which is where things can go a bit wobbly. So, to get the max-height you'll have to play around with pixel sizes until you get what you're looking for. Change the size and then check in PREVIEW how it's going to look. If it's not right, increase or decrease the number of pixels. For this example I have used 200px - style="max-width:33%; max-height:200px; padding:10px;" and it looks like this:

The original pics have to have a height of greater than your max-height to end up the same height on your post using this method. If the original pics are smaller, then you will end up with a row of pics of different heights anyway. This is very advanced stuff, so if you've got here, well done, and you can go and have a coffee now ;-)


You can add audio to posts too!
The basic code for adding iNat audio is:
<audio controls>
<source src="https://website.com/audio.mp3" type="audio/mpeg">
Your browser does not support the audio element.
<p>caption and credit</p>

and the audio looks like this:

Bokmakierie duet by @karoopixie

As with images, go to the observation that you want to embed, RIGHT-CLICK on the audio slider, LEFT-CLICK on copy audio address and PASTE it into your source code.

You can embed recordings from other sites too if they allow it. On Xeno-Canto you can click the "Embed" link and it will give you the code you need to add to your post. Just copy and paste, and it will look like so:

If you have any other suggestions, questions, improvements or amendments, just let me know :-)


Publicado el 29 de enero de 2019 a las 08:57 AM por karoopixie karoopixie | 34 comentarios | Deja un comentario